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The objective of this project is to design a process to help Area Committee planners anticipate and plan for the socially disruptive, or “human dimensions” of spills. This will be a procedure in which planners and other stakeholders are led through a systematic exploration of the possible human impacts. To develop this process, we will first construct an organized list (or taxonomy) of human impacts to spills. We will do this by mining the existing literature and interviewing Area Committee members in three different regions, collecting their insights into how oil spills could impact human communities. Second, to understand how particular qualities of communities determine the way in which impacts are brought about, we will use vulnerability theory. This involves characterizing sensitivities and adaptive responses of the people, groups, institutions, and communities that are impacted by a spill event. We will develop a generic technique to help AC planners identify, gather, and summarize relevant vulnerability information. An additional part of this project involves identifying existing data sets that AC planners can use to characterize impacts and vulnerability information.
Oil spill response planners never disregard the human dimensions of oil spills. In fact, the National Contingency Plan requires that items of economic and environmental importance that are threatened by a spill be covered in the plan. However, the strength of ecological concerns and the wealth of information on ecological sensitivity tend to be primary drivers in contingency planning. The socioeconomic lags behind the ecological in terms of readily available information and tools to assess sensitivity. Social endpoints that are acutely threatened are protected in an emergency response, but the systematic assessment of social and economic effects is not widely done in area-based contingency planning processes. This research project investigates what is involved in bringing a systematic assessment of socioeconomic vulnerability considerations into area-based oil spill contingency planning. While this project has one eye on the ultimate goal of producing practical decision-support or social impact assessment tools, it presupposes that several types of information need to be collected, evaluated, and synthesized before such tools can be constructed. Specifically: (1) human dimensions endpoints threatened by oil spills need to be systematically identified; (2) the relationships between these endpoints, effects, and planning and management actions should be evaluated; (3) the sufficiency of existing data and data-analysis tools to characterize and anticipate these causal relations must be assessed. Initial inquiries with emergency responders and contingency planners into these questions have validated their importance.
Drawing on existing data wherever possible, we propose to review qualitative data to reveal the types of human dimensions endpoints that matter in oil spills. In Phase 1, we will document how the importance of endpoints can be understood and, eventually, measured using the conceptual framework of vulnerability. We will meet with experienced personnel as part of three case studies to identify endpoints of concern and use the conceptual framework of vulnerability to identify key factors influencing losses. The information we gather will be structured in a way that facilitates planning interventions. In Phase 2, we will investigate to what extent existing data are capable of depicting the human dimensions considerations identified in Phase 1 and we will propose recommendations for how a planning process that has been strongly led by ecological considerations can be broadened to also include the most important human dimensions. These recommendations will also summarize how oil spill planning can proceed using a perspective that highlights the coupled human and natural systems.
- Databases and tools available to assess vulnerabilities of human communities to oil spills: A review (project report)
- Databases and tools available to assess vulnerabilities of human communities to oil spills: Technical Appendix (project report)
- Guidance for incorporating human impacts and vulnerabilities in marine oil spill contingency planning (project report)
- Human dimensions of oil spills: The DM-932 spill (project report)
- Planning for the human dimensions of oil spills and spill response (journal article)
- The human dimensions of the Bouchard-120 oil spill (project report)